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Exercise
a) Find all the quadratic residues modulo 19.
b) How many quadratic residues are there modulo 31?
c) Show that the congruence
has a solution modulo any prime.
Question
Let
be a prime (n>0).
Show that a is a quadratic nonresidue modulo p if and only if a is a primitive root modulo p.
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a) Find all the quadratic residues modulo 19.
b) How many quadratic residues are there modulo 31?
c) Show that the congruence
has a solution modulo any prime.
Question
Let
be a prime (n>0).
Show that a is a quadratic nonresidue modulo p if and only if a is a primitive root modulo p.